The purpose of this book is to provide readers with an introduction to the very active field of integer programming and network models. The idea is to cover the main parts of the field without being too detailed or too technical. As a matter of fact, we found it somewhat surprising that most--especially newer---books are strongly algorithmically oriented. In contrast, the main emphasis of this book is on models rather than methods. This focus expresses our view that methods are tools to solve actual problems and not ends in themselves. As such, graduate (and with some omissions, undergraduate) students may find this book helpful in their studies as will practitioners who would like to get acquainted with a field or use this text as a refresher. This premise has resulted in a coverage that omits material that is standard fare in other books, whereas it covers topics that are only infrequently found elsewhere. There are some, yet relatively few, prerequisites for the reader. Most material that is required for the understanding of more than one chapter is presented in one of the four chapters of the introductory part, which reviews the main results in linear programming, the analysis of algorithms, graphs and networks, and dynamic programming, respectively. Readers who are familiar with the issues involved can safely skip that part. The three main parts of the book rely on intuitive reasoning and examples, whenever practical, instead of theorems and proofs.
In 1999 the IFAC/IFIP Workshop on Real Time Programming (WRTP) joined forces with the Workshop on Active and Real-Time Database Systems (ARTDB). Both series of workshops provide an excellent forum for exchanging information on recent scientific and technological advances and practices in real time computing, a field that is becoming an essential enabling discipline of both control engineering and computer science and engineering.
The annual Workshop on Real Time Programming and the bi-annual Workshop on Active and Real-time Databases Systems are intended as meetings of relatively small numbers of experts in their fields taking place as truly international events. The 1999 Workshop maintained the outstanding quality of both series, providing an opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art, to present new results, and to discuss possible lines of future developments. Primarily, it focused on software development for real time systems, real time operating systems and active and real time database systems.
In particular, the technical programme of the Workshop covered latest research and developments in requirements engineering, software engineering, active and real time database systems, communication and clock synchronisation, embedded systems, formal methods, operating systems and scheduling. Out of 58 submissions from 19 countries, the International Programme Committee selected 26 regular papers and 8 reserve papers for presentation at the Workshop. Contributions come from Europe, North America, Australia, and the Far East. In addition to these, the programme also featured two world renowned keynote speakers, and a discussion panel about the state-of-the-art in the field of active real time database systems.
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