The book addresses ways and means of organizing computations, highlighting the relationship between algorithms and the basic mechanisms and runtime structures necessary to execute them using machines. It completely abstracts from concrete programming languages and machine architectures, taking instead the lambda calculus as the basic programming and program execution model to design various abstract machines for its correct implementation. This book takes a lambda calculus approach to organizing computations. It sets out with a brief introduction to lambda calculus, describes a variant of the classical SECD-machine as a basic interpreter for the lambda calculus, and in the main part continues with fully normalizing abstract lambda calculus machines, of which some are interpreting and some execute compiled code.
Soft Computing today is a very vast field whose extent is beyond measure. The boundaries of this magnificent field are spreading at an enormous rate making it possible to build computationally intelligent systems that can do virtually anything, even after considering the hostile practical limitations. Soft Computing, mainly comprising of Artificial Neural Networks, Evolutionary Computation, and Fuzzy Logic may itself be insufficient to cater to the needs of various kinds of complex problems. In such a scenario, we need to carry out amalgamation of same or different computing approaches, along with heuristics, to make fabulous systems for problem solving. There is further an attempt to make these computing systems as adaptable as possible, where the value of any parameter is set and continuously modified by the system itself. This book first presents the basic computing techniques, draws special attention towards their advantages and disadvantages, and then motivates their fusion, in a manner to maximize the advantages and minimize the disadvantages. Conceptualization is a key element of the book, where emphasis is on visualizing the dynamics going inside the technique of use, and hence noting the shortcomings. A detailed description of different varieties of hybrid and adaptive computing systems is given, paying special attention towards conceptualization and motivation. Different evolutionary techniques are discussed that hold potential for generation of fairly complex systems. The complete book is supported by the application of these techniques to biometrics. This not only enables better understanding of the techniques with the added application base, it also opens new dimensions of possibilities how multiple biometric modalities can be fused together to make effective and scalable systems.
In this monograph, the authors introduce a novel fuzzy rule-base, referred to as the Fuzzy All-permutations Rule-Base (FARB). They show that inferring the FARB, using standard tools from fuzzy logic theory, yields an input-output map that is mathematically equivalent to that of an artificial neural network. Conversely, every standard artificial neural network has an equivalent FARB.
The FARB-ANN equivalence integrates the merits of symbolic fuzzy rule-bases and sub-symbolic artificial neural networks, and yields a new approach for knowledge-based neurocomputing in artificial neural networks.
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