Self-contained and concise, this Research Note provides a basis to study unsteady flow in saturated porous media. It provides for the development of algorithms that examine three-dimensional flows subject to complicated boundary conditions that are a natural consequence of flow in geological systems. A new way to understand the flow in porous media is presented. The authors pay attention to computational considerations, and options for developing codes are addressed. The note consists of five chapters: the first is introductory; the second and third are devoted to showing how one arrives at the solutions of interest; the fourth chapter presents various reformulations to aid computations and presents a few illustrative examples; the fifth chapter is a natural progression of the first four chapters to more complicated visualizations of flow in porous media.
N etwork-based computing domain unifies all best research efforts presented from single computer systems to networked systems to render overwhelming computational power for several modern day applications. Although this power is expected to grow with respect to time due to tech- nological advancements, application requirements impose a continuous thrust on network utilization and on the resources to deliver supreme quality of service. Strictly speaking, network-based computing dornain has no confined scope and each element offers considerable challenges. Any modern day networked application strongly thrives on efficient data storage and management system, which is essentially a Database System. There have been nurnber of books-to-date in this domain that discuss fundamental principles of designing a database systern. Research in this dornain is now far matured and rnany researchers are venturing in this dornain continuously due to a wide variety of challenges posed. In this book, our dornain of interest is in exposing the underlying key challenges in designing algorithms to handle unpredictable requests that arrive at a Distributed Database System(DDBS) and evaluating their performance. These requests are otherwise called as on-line requests arriving at a system to process. Transactions in an on-line Banking service, Airline Reservation systern, Video-on-Demand systern, etc, are few examples of on-line requests.
Soft Computing today is a very vast field whose extent is beyond measure. The boundaries of this magnificent field are spreading at an enormous rate making it possible to build computationally intelligent systems that can do virtually anything, even after considering the hostile practical limitations. Soft Computing, mainly comprising of Artificial Neural Networks, Evolutionary Computation, and Fuzzy Logic may itself be insufficient to cater to the needs of various kinds of complex problems. In such a scenario, we need to carry out amalgamation of same or different computing approaches, along with heuristics, to make fabulous systems for problem solving. There is further an attempt to make these computing systems as adaptable as possible, where the value of any parameter is set and continuously modified by the system itself. This book first presents the basic computing techniques, draws special attention towards their advantages and disadvantages, and then motivates their fusion, in a manner to maximize the advantages and minimize the disadvantages. Conceptualization is a key element of the book, where emphasis is on visualizing the dynamics going inside the technique of use, and hence noting the shortcomings. A detailed description of different varieties of hybrid and adaptive computing systems is given, paying special attention towards conceptualization and motivation. Different evolutionary techniques are discussed that hold potential for generation of fairly complex systems. The complete book is supported by the application of these techniques to biometrics. This not only enables better understanding of the techniques with the added application base, it also opens new dimensions of possibilities how multiple biometric modalities can be fused together to make effective and scalable systems.
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